# Dictionary Definition

permanent adj

1 continuing or enduring without marked change in
status or condition or place; "permanent secretary to the
president"; "permanent address"; "literature of permanent value"
[syn: lasting] [ant:
impermanent]

2 not capable of being reversed or returned to
the original condition; "permanent brain damage" n : a series of
waves in the hair made by applying heat and chemicals [syn:
permanent
wave, perm]

# User Contributed Dictionary

## English

### Etymology

From permanent, from permanens (continuing), from permanēo (to stay to the end). Used in English since 15th century.### Pronunciation

### Adjective

- Without end, eternal.
- Nothing in this world is truly permanent.

- Lasting for an indefinitely long time.
- The countries are now locked in a permanent state of conflict.

#### Derived terms

- permadeath
- permafrost
- permanent way
- permatemp
- impermanent (antonym)

#### Translations

without end

- Arabic:
- Chinese: 永久 (yǒngjiǔ)
- Dutch: bestendig
- Finnish: pysyvä, ikuinen, jatkuva, kestävä
- French: permanent
- German: beständig
- Hungarian: állandó
- Italian: permanente
- Japanese: 永久の (えいきゅうの, eikyū no)
- Korean: 영구적인 (yeonggujeokin)
- Portuguese: permanente
- Russian: постоянный (postojánnyj), неизменный (neizménnyj), перманентный (permanéntnyj)
- Serbian: trajan, stalan
- Spanish: permanente
- Swedish: ständig
- Telugu: శాశ్వతం (SaaSvataM)

lasting for an indefinitely long time

- Finnish: pysyvä, ikuinen, jatkuva, kestävä
- French: permanent
- German: permanent
- Italian: permanente
- Russian: долговременный (dolgovrémennyj), перманентный (permanéntnyj)
- Serbian: dugotrajan, trajan
- Sindhi: ,
- Telugu: శాశ్వతం (SaaSvataM)

- ttbc Esperanto: konstanta
- ttbc Ido: Permanenta
- ttbc Spanish: Permanente

### Noun

- A chemical hair treatment imparting or removing curliness, whose effects typically last for a period of weeks.
- Given an n \times n matrix a_ \,, the sum over all permutations \pi \, of \prod_^n.

#### Translations

hair treatment

- Finnish: permanentti, kestokiharat
- French: permanente
- Italian: permanente

sum over all permutations

- French: permanent

#### See also

## French

### Adjective

permanent### Noun

fr-noun m## German

### Adjective

### Adverb

#### Synonyms

# Extensive Definition

In linear
algebra, the permanent of a matrix is a function of a matrix
related to the determinant. The permanent
as well as the determinant are polynomials of the entries of the
matrix.

## Definition

The permanent of an n-by-n matrix A = (ai,j) is defined as- \operatorname(A)=\sum_\prod_^n a_.

The sum here extends over all elements
σ of the symmetric
group Sn, i.e. over all permutations of the numbers
1, 2, ..., n.

For example,

- \operatorname\begina&b \\ c&d\end=ad+bc.

The definition of the permanent of A differs from
that of the determinant of A in that the
signatures of the permutations are not taken into account. If one
views the permanent as a map that takes n vectors as arguments,
then it is a multilinear
map and it is symmetric (meaning that any order of the vectors
results in the same permanent). A formula similar to Laplace's
for the development of a determinant along a row or column is also
valid for the permanent; all signs have to be ignored for the
permanent.

## Applications

Unlike the determinant, the permanent has no easy geometrical interpretation; it is mainly used in combinatorics. The permanent describes the number of perfect matchings in a bipartite graph. More specifically, let G be a bipartite graph with vertices A1, A2, ..., An on one side and B1, B2, ..., Bn on the other side. Then, G can be described by an n-by-n matrix A = (ai,j) where ai,j = 1 if there is an edge between the vertices Ai and Bj and ai,j = 0 otherwise. The permanent of this matrix is equal to the number of perfect matchings in the graph.## Complexity

The permanent is also more difficult to compute than the determinant. While the determinant can be computed in polynomial time by Gaussian elimination, Gaussian elimination cannot be used to compute the permanent. Moreover, computing the permanent of a 0-1 matrix (matrix whose entries are 0 or 1) is #P-complete (proof). Thus, if the permanent can be computed in polynomial time by any method, then FP = #P which is an even stronger statement than P = NP. When the entries of A are nonnegative, however, the permanent can be computed approximately in probabilistic polynomial time, up to an error of εM, where M is the value of the permanent and ε > 0 is arbitrary. Because the permanent is random self-reducible, these results hold out even for average-case inputs.## Immanant

The permanent and the determinant are both special
cases of the immanant:
Given a complex
character \chi: S_n\rightarrow\mathbb of the symmetric group
S_n, the immanant corresponding to \chi of an n-by-n matrix A
is

- \operatorname_\chi(A)=\sum_\chi(\sigma)\prod_^n a_.

The permanent is recovered from this definition
by taking \chi to be the trivial character \sigma\mapsto 1, and the
determinant is recovered by taking \chi to be the
sign function sgn, which is the unique nontrivial
one-dimensional irreducible
character of S_n.

## See also

- Determinant
- Immanant
- Bapat-Beg theorem, an application of permanent in order statistics

## References

- Mark Jerrum, Alistair Sinclair, Eric Vigoda (2004) "A polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the permanent of a matrix with nonnegative entries", Journal of the ACM, Volume 51, Pages 671--697

## External links

permanent in German: Permanente

permanent in French: Permanent
(mathématiques)

permanent in Hebrew: פרמננטה

permanent in Polish: Permanent

# Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

Afro,
abiding, age-long,
aged, ageless, all-knowing,
all-powerful, all-seeing, all-wise, almighty, ancient, antique, assiduous, boundless, ceaseless, changeless, chronic, coeternal, coif, coiffure, cold wave, conk, constant, continual, continuing, continuous, creating, creative, dateless, diligent, diuturnal, dogged, durable, endless, enduring, eternal, eternally the same,
eterne, ever-being,
ever-durable, ever-during, evergreen, everlasting, everliving, faithful, firm, fixed, frozen, glorious, good, haircut, hairdo, hairstyle, hallowed, hardy, headdress, highest, holy, home permanent, immemorial, immobile, immortal, immutable, imperishable, inalterable, incessant, incommutable, inconvertible, indefatigable, indefeasible, indestructible, indomitable, industrious, inert, infinite, insistent, insusceptible of
change, intact, interminable, intransient, intransmutable, invariable, inveterate, invincible, inviolate, irretrievable, irreversible, irrevocable, just, lasting, limitless, long-lasting,
long-lived, long-standing, long-term, longeval, longevous, loving, loyal, luminous, macrobiotic, majestic, making, merciful, natural, never-ceasing,
never-ending, never-tiring, noble, nonreturnable, nonreversible, nonstop, nonterminating, nonterminous, numinous, obstinate, of long duration,
of long standing, olamic,
omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, one, patient, patient as Job,
perdurable, perduring, perennial, permanent wave,
perpetual, perseverant, persevering, persistent, persisting, pertinacious, plodding, plugging, preoccupied, process, quiescent, radiant, rapt, relentless, remaining, resolute, reverseless, rigid, sacred, sedulous, sempervirent, sempiternal, shaping, single-minded, sleepless, slogging, solid, sovereign, stable, static, stationary, staying, steadfast, steady, stubborn, supreme, sustained, tenacious, timeless, tireless, torpid, tough, ubiquitous, unabating, unalterable, unalterative, unaltered, unbounded, unceasing, unchangeable, unchanged, unchanging, unchecked, unconquerable, undaunted, undefined, undeflectable, undestroyed, undeviating, undiscouraged, undrooping, undying, unending, unfading, unfailing, unfaltering, unflagging, unflinching, unintermitting, uninterrupted, unlimited, unmodifiable, unnodding, unrelaxing, unrelenting, unremitting, unrestorable, unreturnable, unshifting, unsleeping, unsusceptible, unswerving, untiring, unvariable, unvaried, unvarying, unwavering, unwearied, unwearying, unwinking, utterly attentive,
vital, wave, weariless, without
end